ADB - Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command line tool that lets you communicate with Android devices from PC, laptop, or basically anything else..
Android - Mobile operating system mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel developed by Google. Think of it like Windows but for mobile devices. The current version of Android is "Ice cream sandwhich", with the next version codenamed "Jellybean"
Android Market - Home to where developers and companies sell their applications to users using Google as the middle man..
ASOP - Android Open Source Project
Apps2SD - Install apps to removable SD Card instead of internal memory, saving a lot of space.
BLN - BackLight Notification
Busybox - BusyBox is basically additonal linux toolsets that can be installed on Android devices for apps to use. You will find many apps requiring this to be installed. This can be easily downloaded from the Android Market
Bloatware - Software that manufactures and vendor's add to "increase" value of their device but many times just slows the system.
Brick-ing - When a device turns useless usually through software or hardware modification. It becomes a useless "brick"
ClockworkMod Recovery (CWM/CWR) - A custom recovery mode for Android phones and tablets that expands the feature of the standard recovery mode options. CWM is popular for Android enthusiasts because it allows them to flash custom ROMS
Flash-ing - This is when you "Flash"/install a firmware image (or ROM) to a Android device. Typically, you will be provided a zip file(the ROM) and will have to install it using the options in CWM
Firmware - Most cases, firmware will refer to the ROM on the android device.
Hard Brick - When the device cannot be turned on or is completely unresponsive.
Kernel - Main part of the Android/Linux, which provides the communication between hardware and software components.
NANDroid - NANDroid is a tool that allows you to backup (and restore) /system, /data, /cache, and /boot partitions.
ODIN - Odin is a Samsung software used to update Samsung phones using specifc packages.
OTA / Over the Air - When software updates are distributed automatically through the internet.
Radio - The cellular radio on the device. This can be updated or modified to allow the device to block or receive other bands that may not be currently supported. Flashing the Radio is very risky.
Recovery Mode - Instead of booting normally, the Android can enter a "recovery mode", typically entered through a special combination of button presses unique to every device. Recovery mode allows you to troubleshoot and debug the device.
ROM - For Android devices, ROM will most of the time refer to a version firmware.
Root-ing - Process of giving the Android device "Super User"/unlimited access to the Android software. Most devices blocks root by default to protect the average user.
Soft Brick - When device fails to achieve normal behavior but is fixable through recovery or CWM
Superuser - A user that has access to root. For Android devices, when your device has root capabilities, you can download "Superuser" app to give root permissions to other apps.
Wipe/Factory reset - This will erase all user and application data from the Android device.